Using translation concepts, y-coordinates greater than 38 identify a location north of the city.
What is a translation?
A translation is represented by a change in the function graph, according to operations such as multiplication or sum/subtraction in it's definition.
Considering latitude and longitude, the coordinates of a city are given as follows:
Hence, the given city has coordinates given by:
As we move north, the latitude increases, hence, y-coordinates greater than 38 identify a location north of the city.
More can be learned about translation concepts at